(1) The capacity of broadband information is large. The optical fiber communication capacity is large, and the transmission width of the optical fiber is much larger than the width of the cable or the copper wire. However, for a single-wavelength optical fiber system, since the terminal device is greatly limited, the transmission width of the optical fiber is often not exhibited. Therefore, scientific techniques are needed to increase the capacity of transmission.
(2) Low loss and long distance transmission. The loss rate of optical fiber communication is much lower than the common communication loss rate. The fiber not only has low loss, but also can communicate over long distances. The longest communication distance can reach more than 10,000 meters, so fiber communication is more practical for social networks. The place where the amount of information is compared. And fiber-optic communication cost is relatively high, with good security.
(3) Strong anti-electromagnetic interference capability. The optical fiber is mainly an insulator material made of quartz as a raw material, and the material is excellent in insulation and is not easily corroded. The most important feature of optical fiber communication is its strong anti-electromagnetic interference capability, and it is not affected by natural sunspot activity, ionospheric changes and lightning interference, and it is not subject to artificial electromagnetic interference. And the optical fiber communication can also be combined with the power conductor to form a double-row optical cable or parallel with the high-voltage power line. This characteristic of optical fiber communication plays a great role in the communication system in the field of strong electricity. Optical power communication can also be applied to the military because it can be free from the interference of electromagnetic pulse.
(4) Good security and confidentiality. In the transmission of radio waves in the past, since electromagnetic waves leak during the transmission process, interference of various transmission systems is caused, and confidentiality is not good. However, optical fiber communication mainly uses light waves to transmit signals. The optical signals are completely confined to the structure of the optical waveguide, and other leaked rays are absorbed by the outer sheath of the optical fiber, even in a ring with a bad condition or a corner. There are also few light wave leaks. Moreover, in the process of optical fiber communication, many optical fiber cables can be put into one optical cable without interference. Therefore, optical fiber communication has strong anti-interference ability and confidentiality, and the security performance of optical fiber communication is also very high. In addition to the above specific features, optical fiber communication has many advantages, such as low cost of raw materials for optical fibers, abundant resources, soft fiber, light weight, easy laying, and long service life and good stability of optical fibers. Moreover, optical fiber communication applications are widely used, and can be used not only in power communication, but also in industrial fields, military fields, and other fields.